Globalization is an important concept and has been considered a business phenomenon. Globalization refers to the continued integration of markets as a result of businesses moving more frequently worldwide. Accounting is a byproduct of the business sector so it sees these changes and transformations. These changes and transformations have affected not only accounting standards and principles, but they also have affected accounting education. Due to globalization and more businesses going worldwide, the need to understand more than just what is accepted under the Generally Accepted Accounting Principles (GAAP) has become increasingly more important. It is important to have an understanding of the International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS). The adoption of IFRS around the world has had a great impact on accounting education. The adoption of the IFRS however can be seen as part of larger movement which involves the globalization of businesses around the world, including that of small businesses So much so that the IFRS has issued IFRS for Small and Medium Sized Entities (Needles Jr., 602). This has made it easier not only for small businesses, but also accounting professionals to have a specific set of guidelines. Since the profession of accounting will become more globalized over time accounting professionals and students will have a difficult time succeeding in the accounting field without continued education and familiarization to new and global accounting standards.Globalization of accounting has some troubles and consequences for accounting education due to the different accounting standards that come along with it. The major trouble is the education and how the International Federation of Accountants (IFAC) or the International Accounting Education Standards Board (IAESB) will be capable of coordinating accounting education globally (Needles Jr. 602). There is becoming more and more of a need for a universal set of accounting standards and this is something which would simplify the global education of accounting. There is a public interest for a universal standard and the development of a high quality standards for financial reporting. With a universal standard the education of accounting would not be as varied and it would not contain multiple standards following different financial and tax laws of different countries as it does now. The U.S. set of standards GAAP historically has been considered the highest quality set of financial accounting and reporting standards around the world.There are many similarities between GAAP and international standards however significant differences do exist and these differences become a difficulty for accounting professionals. Since accounting standards are always evolving it is difficult enough to be able to educate based off one set of standards. The current lack of a universal accounting set of standards has made accounting education lag behind that of where the accounting profession is now. With a universal set used by every country and a governing body that is focused solely on expanding and improving that set of standard, this can be seen through the increase use of the IFRS.Understanding global standards, specifically the largest current global standard the IFRS is important to accounting education. Through the globalization of accounting education, the IFRS has become extremely important in the accounting profession. The rise of IFRS and the fact that the differences between IFRS and GAAP are becoming smaller is a good step in the globalization of accounting education since it is easier to teach. Most fortune global 500 are now using IFRS. There has been a movement towards principle based standards has been suggested since it would not only accommodate different countries laws, but it would also faithfully represent the financial transactions and events (Needles Jr 601). The problem with going with a system of principle based standards is educating students in it and how professors would be able to teach these principles without the framework of them.In conclusion globalization has had a major effect on accounting education not just in the United States but in many countries. As many countries attempt to understand and interpret the different accounting principles of different countries it, for example Japan offers a test which tests for knowledge of both the U.S. GAAP principles and the IFRS. Accounting curriculum will need to continue to develop and the focus on global practices should be inserted into the core of the curriculum. In the U.S., IFRS should be taught just as much as GAAP and requirements for students to globalize their understanding of accounting. Students need to have a global understanding that surpasses that of just an understanding of GAAP. Instead of just education students on the financial and tax systems of the country they belong to they must learn and have a comprehensive understanding of the international financial and tax systems. Globalization will continue to bring many benefits but with those benefits it poses a challenge for the accounting profession and the way in which education standards are set and the way in which students are taught accounting.Reference:Needles, B. E. (2010). Accounting Education: The Impact of Globalization. Accounting Education, 19(6), 601-605. doi:10.1080/09639284.2010.501578
Over the last few years, the education scenario has changed significantly. It won’t be wrong to say that it has become different from what it used to be 20 years back. Education has turned into a vast field, which generally encompasses a wide range of subjects. These days, teachers and tutors working in schools or universities are held in high esteem. Today teaching is considered as one of the most respectful occupations. In fact, talking in terms of present context there is no better investment you can make than making a career in education. In recent times, the demand for qualified educators has been rise and this trend is more likely to increase in the near future. It doesn’t mater, whether you are more inclined in working as an elementary school teacher, special education instructor, professor, lecturer or corporate trainer, in education industry you can find a career that can be extremely rewarding.Today if we look at the current scenario then we can easily find that there has been a considerable increase in the number of educational institutions in the United States, but in recent years the East Coast of the United States has turned out to be the major hub of education schools that has pulled many students from all across the nation. While the physical East Coast of the United States ranges from Maine down to Florida, but the term ‘East Coast’ primarily refers to the Northeastern and mid Atlantic states. In fact, nowadays this East Coast region of the United States is considered as an abode to many top-ranked and admired education colleges and universities. Most of the schools are known for academics and are widely recognized names among U.S. top education schools. So in case you are looking forward to earning an education degree in any of the specialized field then here are few schools or universities that you can apply for:Keller Graduate School of Management, New York: This school is known for offering exceptional learning environment and offer degree programs in Educational Management. It even delivers the credibility you expect and the flexibility you basically required to gain your professional edge.Five Towns College, New York: Situated at the geographic center of Long Island, Five Towns College is majorly known preparing students for work in the education industry for many years. Dedicated to excellence in learning, teaching, and scholarship, the college offers the music education program. It offers the Bachelor of Music (MusB) in music education (K-12).McCann School of Business & Technology, Pennsylvania: Committed to excel in the post-secondary education, this school offer diploma program in early childhood education. Besides this, the school has a rich record for helping its students succeed and features one of the best administration dedicated to the highest standards of instruction.Montreat College School, North Carolina: Founded in the year 1916, this college offers programs at the associate’s and master’s degree levels in general education and elementary education respectively.Strayer University, Virginia: Located at different campus in Virginia, this university offers quality education programs in Educational Management and Technology in Education that is affordable, supportive and convenient.Today certainly education is one of the booming industries and growing with additional jobs each day. The profession has its many rewards, but in order to gain the benefits it is very important to earn a degree from a good school or university. These names mentioned above are some of the oldest and best know institutions of earning degree in education learning in East Coast region of the United States.
Stress at individual and social levels; distorts our cognition, affect and conation (perception, feelings and actions); and leads to amongst many other evils; deterioration of international, national and local education policy and its implementation. The present day non-holistic (sectarian, prejudiced, vindictive, malicious, mercenary, exploitative and malevolent) education (formal, curricular, co curricular, extracurricular and informal) is a major stressor that though aids in petty pursuits; opposes our blossoming and further perpetuates stress and ill effects in the individual and social life. Let us review; the present perspective, policy and practice of education; as seen around.Even though education is defined in various ways; and often inadequately or incompletely; there has been a general agreement on the fact that education is basically a process of blossoming of an individual and the society. Hence it included three domains, which are as follows.The first domain is called AFFECTIVE DOMAIN. This means the state of mind. In simple words affective domain relates to how we feel. Thus when our mind is full of alertness, attention, enthusiasm, buoyancy, affection, concern, joy, tolerance, self esteem, mutual respect, mutual trust, commitment, dedication, love, romance, confidence, positive and victorious spirit, we would call it healthy affective domain. In addition; the zeal and concentration needed; in the pursuit of excellence in intellectual field, tenacity and endurance required; in skillful activities and patience and commitment essential; for internally satisfying and socially beneficial (conscientious) actions constitute affective domain. The purpose of education is to nurture this domain by designing suitable curricula and syllabi.The second domain of education is called PSYCHOMOTOR DOMAIN. This implies ability to appreciate skills and ability to perform physical and mental skills, with speed, accuracy, elegance, ease of performance etc. This may involve appreciation and performance of skills such as surgery, playing a musical instrument, playing basket ball or doing carpentry! The purpose of education is to nurture this domain through not only designing suitable curricula, syllabi but also by providing sufficient practical and demonstration classes; with all the necessary equipments.The third domain is called COGNITIVE DOMAIN. Cognitive domain incorporates accurate perspective, contemplation, correct perception understanding, conceptualization, analysis and recall of fact and problems, ability to evaluate, synthesize, correlate and make decisions, appropriate policies, plans and expertise in the management, administration, etc.It is clear that all these domains have three components each viz. Cognition [Perception], affect [Feelings] and conation [Response].Thus cognitive domain would have intellectual perception, clarity and intellectual expression, affective domain would include feeling, motivation and response in emotional sphere such as poetry; and psychomotor domain would include grasp and internalization of a particular skill, confidence to perform it and actually performing it.Let us now see, how in spite of these goals; how it has come to be conceived as a process of achieving political, economic, scientific and technological supremacy and thus deteriorated to the present stage; where all the three domains are defective; apart from lacking in the spiritual and productive domains. In short; let us see how it has become a major stressor.For this; a brief consideration of the traditional education system in India would prove useful.Traditional Education System in India in general; ensured that:
a] Careers were not selected on the basis of monetary gains,
b] Careers were not selected arbitrarily on the basis of idiosyncrasies and whims,
c] Some lucrative careers could not be sought after; in preference to the others,
d] All careers ensured income and production from early age,
e] All careers ensured that the society was benefited,
f] All careers ensured security to all the social groups,
g] All the careers ensured intimacy and closeness between young and old in the families.
h] All careers ensured ethical education and passage of experience and wisdom; from generation to generation.These were merits. But it is also true that, the traditional system was apparently marked by deprivation of scholastic education on mass scale, apparently unjustifiable availability of education of jobs based on caste, deficient infrastructure for collective scientific and technological efforts, and an element of arbitrary imposition of hierarchy.The traditional education system has attained the present status of being a major stressor as a result of several stressful factors including the onslaught of the tempting and impressive individualistic doctrines. Thus the transition from traditional system to the present one (whether due to British, American or any other influence, but basically due to individualistic pursuits); has become a major stressor tearing apart the cohesive social fabric of India by failing to preserve and nurture the merits and discard and dispose off the demerits.As the education shifted from homes, home industries and farms to; nurseries, K.G. schools, schools, colleges, universities, corporate industries, research institutions etc. the transition became viciously poisonous.Cognition suffered because of:
a] Huge number of students, in a single class making following three things almost impossible. These things are i] individual attention ii] dialogue iii] discussions,
b] Lack of adequate salary, accountability, incentive and economic security to the teachers taking away the initiative of nurturing cognitive domain
c] Increase in alienation with respect to student’s background and aptitude
d] Lack of adequate incentive to the students in the form of creativity, production and earning, service to the family and service to the nation, takes away the motivation required for building up cognitive domain
e] Lack of conviction essential in the growth of cognitive domain in the teachers and students because of outdated practical and demonstration classes, lack of interdisciplinary dialogue and in general the irrelevance of education to the realities of day to day life in as much as almost predictable consecutive unemployment at the end! The lack of conviction could be partly due to lack of participation by teachers in decision-making, policy making, development of curricula, syllabi etc.
f] Emphasis on recall and hence rote learning thereby denying free inquiry, reading, questioning etc. thereby directly thwarting the cognitive domain
g]] Too many examinations; with irrelevant parameters or criteria of evaluation [besides being unfair in many instances] leading to misguided and in most cases counterproductive efforts thus adversely affecting the cognitive domain
h] Competitions where the manipulative skills, callousness, selfishness are given more respect, destroy the enthusiasm of growing in cognitive domain
i] Information explosion affecting cognitive domain by either causing enormous and unnecessary burden on memory or inferiority complex
j] Pressure of interviews causing constant tension and sense of inadequacy, right from the tender age,
k] Protracted hours of homework in schools denying the students their legitimate right to enjoy their childhood and make them physically, mentally and intellectually unfit to grow in cognitive domain
l] Irrelevant and unnecessary information loading in lectures in the form of monologue, leading to suppression of the spontaneity, originality, interest and enthusiasm so much required in cognitive development amongst the students,Affective domain suffered due to,
A] Isolation of the children from their parents and their domestic environment at an early age [Making the parents also equally sad]
B] Lack of warm bonds due to huge number,
C] Cut throat individualistic and petty competition,
D] Inadequate facilities of sports, trekking, educational tours, recreation and physical development etc
E] Alienation from one’s social environment and culturePsychomotor domain suffered due to
A] Almost total lack of opportunities to actually participate in skillful activities such as drawing, painting, sewing, sculpturing, carpentry, knitting, weaving, music, agriculture, horticulture, other handicrafts, various sports, performing arts etc.It is important to realize that promotion of psychomotor domain is evident but in its caricature form. It has no concrete economic realistic basis. The activities have no economic incentive and no productive element.Apart from the defects in the three domains; the other two domains viz. spiritual and productive; have not TOTALLY ABSENT in the education.The spiritual domain that imparts universal perspective and globally beneficial outlook; incorporates inner blossoming of an individual through introspection, heart to heart communication (not merely discussion and arguments), mutual understanding and blossoming of the teachers and students together; through one of the most universal practices; viz. NAMASMARAN. Thus the spiritual domain is a key to conquer lust, whims, fancies, pride, arrogance, callousness, contempt, ungratefulness, prejudices, jealousy, hatred, meanness, meekness, beggary, cheating, stealing, treachery and so on; is never made available to the teachers, students and the others; associated with education.The present education system in India lacks the other important domain viz. the productive domain that empowers the people concerned with education. This prevents a huge section of society such as teachers, students, clerks, servants, sweepers and many others such as education inspectors, from being creative and productive. In addition it causes colossal loss of space, electricity, construction cost and so on. In addition because of the typical emphasis on rote learning it leads to phenomenal waste of “educational material” such as paper, bags, pencils, ball pens etc.It has to be appreciated that billions of rupees are spent on unproductive or rather counterproductive exercise of construction, decoration and maintenance of schools and colleges, electricity, and so called educational material, payment of millions of teachers and other staff members engaged, and exams conducted to test the “capacity and merit of rote learning”. This way we weaken the national economy, jeopardize the developmental activities.It also causes economic loss to everyone involved in education; while suppressing and starving their all three domains nurtured in productive activity. This is a single most important cause of
1] Reduction in the dignity of labor amongst those who continue to learn, as well as reduction in the income of the concerned families and the nation
2] Lack of education, lack of employment and starvation or criminalization amongst those who are forced to drop out because the poor villagers’ children normally contribute to the earning of the family.
3] Inhuman suffering of those millions of students dropouts, who somehow manage to get into the hell of cheap child labor for subsistence; due to economic reasons.In short, present day education system harnesses arrogance and diffidence; amongst those who continue to learn. But their spiritual, cognitive, psychomotor, affective and productive domains are defective. Their spiritual blossoming, self empowerment, creative wisdom, intellectual competence, productive skills, self sufficiency and even physical health are deficient. Thus we have increasing number of unproductive criminals and mental wrecks or highly competitive efficient maniacs pursuing petty goals at the cost of others!For those who are unable to continue the education; the abyss of being child labor, stealing, delinquency, criminals, perverts, beggars is wide open!The piecemeal approach or facilitation of petty pursuits (under the guise of development and progress) is not only useless but are in fact counterproductive! It leads to cancerous spread of industries with uncontrolled production of unnecessary utilities and their maddening marketing. These industries consume energy, fuel and add to undisposable waste and pollution. This sickening and stressful atmosphere nurtured by the present education; promotes the growth of terrorism on the one hand; and pretends to act against it (in a counterproductive way) on the other!Mainstream Education System and the courses and careers in it; revolve around and serve the grossly petty and superficial considerations, motivations and interests and this state of affairs; is strongly protected and strengthened by the elements with similar interests! Hence the present laws, rules and regulations also promote present education and its ill effects.Some institutions and individuals, for whom we have great respect, are involved in the holistic approach to education (mainstream, formal, informal, curricular, co curricular, extracurricular as well as education of physically and mentally challenged children). But these efforts are too feeble to make a difference to our life.While piecemeal approaches are failing; there is no adequate awareness and promotion of holistic education, which leaves the vicious cycle of stress distorting education and distorted education creating, aggravating and spreading the stress; to continue unabashedly and unabated.Hence; the ill effects of stress on present education and vice versa; can be eradicated if we understand and propagate the defects in present education and promote holistic education as an international solution. It has to be appreciated that no statesman, no political leader, no policy maker and no administrator can bring about change in an existing system (in democratic set up); unless, we evolve a consensus about the changes in the majority of people; whose cooperation is very vital.In short; the policy of holistic education; demands that every school, college, university etc must become the center of production and service, self sufficient and must aid in self sufficiency and blossoming of everyone involved in education and also of the nation.The students, teachers and others associated with education; must blossom as independent and empowered individuals; spiritually, intellectually, mentally, instinctually, physically and economically.In practice; everyday; approximately
20 % of the time must be spent in production, service etc.
20 % of the time must be spent in physical activities
20 % of the time must be spent in personality (conceptual and spiritual) development and
20 % of the time must be spent in entertainment
20 % of the time must be spent on cognitive domain20 % of the time must be spent in production, service etc.1. The productive domain should be an essential ingredient of education System, but no particular job should be enforced. The teachers and others should participate in the productive domain. Production and service can involve community projects such plantation of medicinal herbs, rearing of cows, home flower gardening, production of chalk sticks, carpentry, pottery, cleanliness, crafts, skills, arts and their sale according to the situations.. Working physically in different ways and earning is not a burden. It is an opportunity to grow from within. It is an opportunity to develop our self esteem. It is an opportunity to become self sufficient.2. This leads to self sufficiency in schools. They do not have to depend on heavy fees or federal grants or donations and this way they become accessible to all; rendering the reservations redundant!3. Through productive domain the hypokinetic stress, emotional stress of being dependent and intellectual stress of excessive memorizing is averted.4. Due to productive domain, the dropping out due to lack of earning (as is common in case of millions of students in many parts of world) and then turning into helpless, vulnerable and cheap child labor would come down.
5. Being empowered, the students would not go through the stress of unemployment and turn into helpless, frustrated mental wrecks or criminals.6. The emphasis on productive domain (and hence psychomotor and practical aspects) would bring down the necessity and also the capability and possibility to “copy” and associated crimes and corruption in procedures of examinations, certification, providing grants and so on!The caste based or any other kind of reservation for education, jobs and promotions; responsible for social divide and strife; in many parts of the world; (especially India) can be rendered redundant and thus; peacefully and advantageously done away with, by consensus!Most importantly; we have to introduce and incorporate examinations, which examine the actual skill, capacity or performance of the student, rather than his/her ability of repeating or reproducing things and/or copying.20 % of the time must be spent in physical activitiesPhysical activities can include pranayama, sports, exercise, trekking, hiking, a variety of physical fitness training programs and methods to avoid monotony and improve efficacy. A variety of sports prevalent in every other parts of the world can make the programs more interesting, entertaining thereby promoting global unity.20 % of the time must be spent in personality (conceptual and spiritual) development andPersonality development includes affective domain, spiritual domain and embodies broadening of perspective through various means such as; NAMASMARAN, by hearting and chanting prayers, poems and songs from different languages and countries thereby promoting global unity, invited guest lectures, seminars, discussions on holistic health, educational tours and visits to places where the student gets exposed to rapid developments in the society such as laboratories, airports, government offices, share market, farms etc.20 % of the time must be spent in entertainmentEntertainment that enriches the soul; not only should include playing musical instruments, dance, painting, mimicry, singing, story telling, drama, movie etc. but everything that nurtures the affective domain and spiritual domain as well.20 % of the time must be spent on cognitive domainDevelopment of cognitive domain can include teaching of languages, history, geography, mathematics etc with utmost emphasis on interpretation and relevance in day to day life. Thus typical irrelevant questions in the examination of history, languages, mathematics; should be totally done away with. The subject such as economics, psychology, civics, philosophy, logic, sociology etc must include field work and made relevant to the present society.We must encourage maximum and daily person to person interaction and dialogue amongst the teachers and students; so that analytical, synthetic, contemplative, decision making, trouble shooting and problem solving capacities are developed optimally.Let us realize the fact that the vicious cycle of stress distorting education and distorted education causing and multiplying stress e.g. in the form of RESERVATION POLICY and its ILL EFFECTS; in individual and social life; can NOT be managed effectively unless and until; a situation where millions are “imprisoned” in unproductive work and millions are forced into unemployment and inhuman cheap child labor; is eradicated through holistic education policy and its implementation; at international, national and local levels; through the laws, government rules and public awareness, consensus and participation.The details of practical steps can be developed by interactions amongst the people active in the field of education all over the world. But we all need;1, Perspective and conviction of Global Unity and global welfare
2. Readiness to accept and introduce physiological insights and principles in the holistic education
3. Readiness and openness to have dialogue with experts in other fields
4. Participation from the society and governments and the media including internet websites, so that holistic education activists all over the world can have a meaningful dialogue and share views, work and experiences and may be, inspire others!
5. Administrative proficiency and due care and concern for the physical capacities of the children (normal as well as the physically and mentally challenged) and should not be painful and troublesome.
7. The opportunities for psychomotor activities and productive activities; without impositions.
8. Every kind of open mindedness and tolerance amongst teachers and students; so that better international relations can be realized.The physical, instinctual, emotional, intellectual, spiritual and economic empowerment and blossoming; of all those involved in holistic education is integral to Total Stress Management (the core of which is NAMASMARAN); i.e. individual and global blossoming; culminating into global unity, harmony and justice.Can NAMASMARAN be useful in this? To find out that; we must find out what is NAMASMARAN!Namasmaran usually embodies; remembering the name of God, Guru, great souls; such as prophets and whatever is considered as holy e.g. planets and stars. It is remembered silently, loudly, along with music, dance, along with breathing, in group or alone. Further, NAMASMARAN is either counted by some means such as fingers, rosary (called SMARANI or JAPAMALA), or electronic counter; or practiced without counting. The traditions vary from region to region and from religion to religion.However the universal principle underlying
NAMASMARAN is to reorient our physiological and social being; with our true self and establish and strengthen the bond between; our physiological and social being; with our true self; and finally reunification or merger with our true self!Since individual consciousness is the culmination of every activity in life; and NAMASMARAN the pinnacle of or culmination of individual consciousness; NAMASMARAN is actually opening the final common pathway to objective or cosmic consciousness; so that individual consciousness in every possible activity gets funneled into or unified with Him!Thus NAMASMARAN is in fact the YOGA of YOGA in the sense that it is the culmination of consciousness associated with every possible procedure and technique in the yoga that we are familiar with. It is the
YOGA of YOGA because it is the culmination of consciousness associated with all the activities in the universe, which it encompasses as well! It is YOGA of YOGA because everybody in the world irrespective of his/her tradition and the beliefs; would eventually, ultimately and naturally reach it; in the process of liberation. Even so called non believers also would not “miss” the “benefit of NAMASMARAN as they may remember true self through one symbol or another”!Just as NAMASMARAN is YOGA of YOGA it is meditation of meditation also! This is because the natural and ultimate climax of every form of meditation; is remembering true self or merging with cosmic consciousness effortlessly!These facts however have to be realized with persistent practice of NAMSMARAN and not blindly believed or blindly disbelieved with casual approach!In short NAMSMARAN is super-bounty of cosmic consciousness for every individual to realize it (cosmic consciousness)! This is truly a super-bounty because a person, who experiences it, rises above mercenary, commercial and even professional and charity planes and manifest super- transactions in his or her life!These are just few observations to give rough idea about what is NAMASMARAN. NAMASMARAN is an ocean of bliss. Its true meaning is beyond description in words and has to b experienced, not by one or few person sporadically; but most preferably, by billions!The last point is; NAMASMARAN would certainly enlighten, empower and enable some people; out of those billions practicing NAMASMARAN; to evolve, guide and consolidate the global conscience and thereby manifest global unity and harmony and justice, through globally benevolent proper policies!